Foodstuff

A number of applications are based on treatments of food preservation, such as packaging or gasing of vegetables.

For example, gasing of some tuber vegetables (i.g. potatoes) prevents the growth of buds during the stocking period. In some extents, inert gases – which cause asphyxia – can be used, or some waste products produce typical decomposition gases such as methane and hydrogen sulphide.
Grain storage bins and cereal storage areas may produce carbon dioxide. Some fruits may release ethane, carbon dioxide and decomposition materials become dangerous in the nearby areas.
In industrial sausage factories, frozen products are cut by means of nitrogen, therefore they need to be equipped with suitable oxygen detectors to monitor if there are any leaks and safeguard operators' health.

GASES INVOLVED

Ammonia (NH3): when stocking vegetables and fruit it is indicative of deterioration due to decomposition.
Inflammable gases: In the productions of cooked food, such as sweets and bread, for example,
flammable gases are in form of fuel delivered to ovens.
alimentari2Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide does not behave as a bactericide (unless in a very high percentage), but it can stop growth and proliferation of the main biological agents which can affect foodstuffs.
Also the effect of carbon dioxide is clear at chemical level: in fact, after dissolving in the product, this gas develops a mild acid action able to denature those enzymes whose action may change the foodstuff scent in time and interact with the other, either animal or vegetal, ingredients so reducing spontaneous modifications.Hydrogen sulphide (H2S): to some extent, it is due to a condition of decomposition of organic matters, just like ammonia.
Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen enables a proper proportion of all the other gases which are part of the modified atmosphere mixture required for packaging; it excludes the presence of oxygen and slows down the negative changes due to enzymatic and microbiological activities.

EXPECTED RISKS

NH3: colourless, with an irritating, sharp smell, inflammable, toxic. Ammonia irritates the mucosa of the conjunctiva, nostrils and pharynx through a scalding action. Moreover, ammonia has a general scalding action.
Inflammable gases: in smaller concentration even than LEL with regard to the volume they explode in presence of a minimum flash source resulting in often serious consequences for people and things
CO2: poisoning due to carbon dioxide, risk of asphyxia due to lack of oxygen.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes
N: like carbon dioxide, high concentrations of gas nitrogen in air may cause asphyxia.

 PRODOTTI DA USARE  
Detection of NH3

TS220EA-H
TS293EA-H

Detection of inflammable gases

TS292K
TS293K
TS292P
TS293P

 Detection of CO2 IR101
IR102

Detection of H2S

TS220EH
Detection of N SE137EO
TS210EO
TS220EO

 

 

Wineries

During the production of wines and distillates, the danger of gas comes from the use of substances required for wine preservation, sterilization of tanks or containers, wine fermentation and, finally, stocking of alcohol..

GASES INVOLVED

Nitrogen (N): when entering inside wine vases where nitrogen was introduced to inert the atmosphere so to avoid oxidation of the product in container filled only in part, the operators may be exposed to the nitrogen remained in the tank after liquid has been removed.
Carbon dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas, it is not combustible but toxic in high concentration. During periodical maintenance of water softening tanks, a standstill of the plant, even for a short time, may cause a stagnation of carbon dioxide, so the operators may be exposed to it whenever they enter the empty tanks.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2): It represent an extraordinarily useful substance in oenology. Its antiseptic power is exploited when harvested grapes go into processing and, afterwards, into must and wine. Sulphur dioxide is used for the antiseptic treatment of empty drums. It has a function as selector of yeasts; finally, it is an antioxidant, so it has the power of protecting wine and delay its ageing.

EXPECTED RISKS

N: like carbon dioxide, high concentrations of gas nitrogen in air may cause asphyxia.
CO2: poisoning due to carbon dioxide, risk of asphyxia due to lack of oxygen.
SO2: in excessive quantities it may get toxic. It may affect the olfactory bulb and cause acute pains inside the nose cavities. It dilutes in wine and, if ingested in big quantity, may cause different disease, among which migraine

 PRODOTTI DA USARE  
Detection of CO2

IR101
IR102

Detection of N

SE137EO
TS210EO
TS220EO

Detection of SO2

TS220ES

 

 

Paper mills

Different additives, such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and, sometimes, chlorine, are used during the treatment of pulp. In thermal plants fuel, often methane, is used and there is a great amount of hydrogen sulphide in the treatment of backwaters.

GASES INVOLVED

Sulphuric acid (H2SO4): when preparing the raw material, it is used as an additive for pulps which will become the basic ingredient of paper sheets after proper treatment.
Hydrochloric acid (HCI): used as additive for pulp, it is a basic ingredient to get paper after suitable processing.
Chlorine (Cl): it is used to bleach raw material (pulp).
Methane (CH4): it is the most common fuel that feeds burners in the thermal plant producing steam.
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S): it is a subproduct contained in big quantities in backwater softening processing.

cartiere2

EXPECTED RISKS

Cl: chlorine irritates the breathing system, mainly in children and old people. When in gas state it irritates the mucosa, and in liquid state, it causes skin burns. Chlorine odour can be smelt at a 3.5 ppm concentration.
CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of H2SO4

TS220EX

Detection of HCI

TS220EX

 Detection of CH4

SE137KM
SE138KM
SE138PM
TS292KM
TS293KM
TS292PM
TS293PM

Detection of H2S

TS220EH
Detection of CI

TS220EX

 

 

Heating plants

Actually, modern thermal plants have almost stopped using liquid fuels. The fuel most frequently used is methane and, to a smaller extent, liquid petroleum gas (LPG).

GASES INVOLVED

Methane CH4: Methane is a simple hydrocarbon and in nature it is in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and an excellent fuel.
LPG (C3H8): used as a fuel, LPG is a mixture of propane and butane, which is often odorized by ethantiol to make its detection easier in case of leaks.

EXPECTED RISKS

CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.
C3H8: used as a fuel, LPG is a mixture of propane and butane, which is often odorized by ethantiol to make its detection easier in case of leaks. It can easily form an atmosphere with high risk of explosion

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of CH4

SE137KM
SE138KM
SE138PM
TS292KM
TS293KM
TS292PM
TS293PM

Detection of C3H8

SE137KG
SE138KG
SE138PG
TS292KG
TS293KG
TS292PG
TS293PG

 

 

Chemistry

A lot of chemical processes need gas detectors. One of the most common applications is related to the entrance in tanks for cleaning or maintenance. Usually in these circumstances the levels of oxygen, flammable gas vapours (usually solvents are used to clean tanks), and toxic gases need to be kept under control. A factory, for instance a factory that produces Chlorine, must make use of a Chlorine detector.

Chemical systems can produce final products or products which will be used by other factories in different processes..

GASES INVOLVED

Ammonia (NH3): it is very common in chemical systems, as a normal product or as a sub product of other processes.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2): usually present as a sub product, it is very common and toxic.

chimica2

Chlorine (C1): commonly used as a component, it can also be the final product of a process.
Oxygen (O2): dangerous if exceeding, especially where it is produced. Lack of oxygen is dangerous,as well, especially during the cleaning process of tanks and tubs previously containing other substances.
Flammable gases: usually solvents for the cleaning process of the parts of the system.
Sulphured hydrogen (H2S): it is used in chemical industry in the production of sulphurs and of organic sulphured substances. It is also used as a solvent.
Toxic gases in general: depending on the considered production

EXPECTED RISKS

NH3: colourless, with an irritating, sharp smell, inflammable, toxic. Ammonia irritates the mucosa of the conjunctiva, nostrils and pharynx through a scalding action. Moreover, ammonia has a general scalding action.
SO2: in excessive quantities it may get toxic. It may affect the olfactory bulb and cause acute pains inside the nose cavities. It dilutes in wine and, if ingested in big quantity, may cause different disease, among which migraine.
C1: chlorine irritates the breathing system, mainly in children and old people. When in gas state it irritates the mucosa, and in liquid state, it causes skin burns. Chlorine odour can be smelt at a 3.5 ppm concentration.
O2: both excess and lack of oxygen may cause important diseases, sometimes death.
Inflammable gases: in smaller concentration even than LEL with regard to the volume they explode in presence of a minimum flash source resulting in often serious consequences for people and things.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes.
General toxic gases: depending on their nature, they may cause various diseases, even death, even if for short exposure times or concentrations of few ppm.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of NH3

TS220EA-H
TS293EA-H

Detection of SO2

TS220ES

 Detection of CI

TS220EX

Detection of O2

SE137EO
TS210EO
TS220EO
TS293EO

Detection of inflammable gases

SE137KX - SE138KX - SE138PX
TS292KX - TS293KX - TS292PX
TS293PX

 

 

Industrial kitchens

Actually, modern industrial kitchens have almost stopped using liquid fuels, but methane or, to a smaller extent, liquid petroleum gas (LPG).

GASES INVOLVED

Methane CH4: during the whole operation life of a kitchen, both when operating or standstill, gas leaks may occur because of mechanical stops of the gas pipes that deliver gas to burners. Such leaks create explosive concentrations.
LPG (C3H8): during the whole operation life of a kitchen, both when operating or standstill, gas leaks may occur because of mechanical stops of the gas pipes that deliver LPG to burners. Such leaks create explosive concentrations.

EXPECTED RISKS

CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of CH4

SE137KM - SE138KM- SE138PM
TS292KM - TS293KM -TS292PM -TS293PM

Detection of C3H8

SE137KG - SE138KG - SE138PG
TS292KG - TS293KG - TS292PG - TS293PG

Fuel storage

On these premises, the main activity is the first cause of hazard. In fact, if fuels spill out of their containers, they and their vapours represent a top-grade danger of flammability so that they can be triggered off even by the smallest energy sources (spark).

GASES INVOLVED

Petrol vapours (C6H14 – C8H18): petrol is generally a mixture of paraffinic hydrocarbons between hexane and octane in changeable proportion.
Diesel oil: Diesel oil contains different classes of hydrocarbons such as paraffin, aromatics and naphtheneses, and their proportion changes according to the type of Diesel oil. Paraffinic hydrocarbons have the best ignition and combustion qualities, since they are more stable.
Kereosene : intermediate hydrocarbon fraction ranging between petrol and Diesel oil, got by distillation of crude oil at 150°C to 250°C.

EXPECTED RISKS

C6H14 – C8H18: Gasoline is extremely flammable, even by a simple spark.
Kereosene : its ignition is very difficult because it requires high temperature and high pressure. However, it needs to be monitored for handled quantities and potential combustion in case of fire.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of C6H14

SE137KX- SE138KX - SE138PX-S
TS292KX - TS293KX - TS292PX-S - TS293PX-S

Detection of Diesel oil

TS293PX-H

Detection of kerosene

TS293PX-H

Gas stores and filling stations

In these particular places, the object of the activity is the most important danger: as a matter of fact, fuel vapours originated during the filling phase are easily (also with a spark) and highly flammable.

GASES INVOLVED

LPG (C3H8): used as a fuel, LPG is a mix of propane and butane, often containing ethanthyol to make it more easily detectable in case of gas leak.

EXPECTED RISKS

C3H8: when loading and unloading the product from tank trucks into storage tanks or vice versa, there mat be fuel spillage which is very dangerous due to high flammability of this product even by a minimum spark. Other causes of spillage may be due to leaks from the plant. LPG is more dangerous than other inflammable gases due to its poor volatility, in fact, it forms pockets stagnating on the floor.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of C3H8

SE137KG - SE138KG- SE138PG
TS292KG - TS293KG - TS292PG - TS293PG

Rubbish dumps

In rubbish dumps, due to organic substances decomposition, methane, sulphured hydrogen, and carbon dioxide can be generated. Often, these gases find a way through the layers of ground up to reclaimed areas where there might be buildings.

 

GASES INVOLVED

Oxygen (O2): meant as lack of oxygen is caused by the massive presence of other gases.
Methane (CH4): it is the result of the decomposition of some organic substances in absence of oxygen. It is considered a biogas.
Carbon dioxide (CO2): it is a transformation product of every decomposition process.
Sulphured hydrogen (H2S): it is a sub product extremely present in all the places where rubbish is collected.

discariche2EXPECTED RISKS

O2: both excess and lack of oxygen may cause important diseases, sometimes death.
Inflammable gases: in smaller concentration even than LEL with regard to the volume they explode in presence of a minimum flash source often resulting in serious consequences for people and things.
CO2: poisoning due to carbon dioxide, risk of asphyxia due to lack of oxygen.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory
ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of O2

SE137EO - TS210EO- TS220EO - TS293EO

 Detection of CH4

SE137KM - SE138KM - SE138PM
TS292KM - TS293KM - TS292PM - TS293PM

 Detection of CO2

 IR101 - IR102

 Detection of H2S

 TS220EH

Detection of CI

TS220EX

Drinkable water disinfection

In these systems the danger is linked to the use of chlorine to purify water. There are many different supplying resources: underground, superficial, or brackish water, if properly treated. In most aqueducts water is disinfected. Disinfection always implies the use of chemical substances (except for ultraviolet disinfection). Chlorine derivates are usually used for this purpose.

GASES INVOLVED

Chlorine (Cl): it is the most used element; because of its high toxicity, it easily eliminates many biological risks.

EXPECTED RISKS

CI: chlorine irritates the breathing system, mainly in children and old people. When in gas state it irritates the mucosa, and in liquid state, it causes skin burns. Chlorine odour can be smelt at a 3.5 ppm concentration.

PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of Cl

TS 220EX

Pharmaceutics

In the production of pharmaceuticals chemical substances are used in different conditions and circumstances:

1 . In a chemical lab flammable organic solvents are used and stored. These spaces are at high risk of explosion or fire.
2 . In the process of preparation of solutions, great quantities of ethylic alcohol may be used. This substance is classified as highly flammable. The use of this substance puts the involved spaces at high risk of explosion or fire.
3 . Production of ointments, pastes, creams, and gels: for the preparation of the mass the most used solvents are water and ethylic alcohol. In this phase chemical solvents are used and manipulated for the production of the mass.
4 . Usually a thermal power plant has great dimensions. The use of methane creates high risks of explosion.
5 . Depending on the type of production, toxic substances can be present.

GASES INVOLVED

Ethylic alcohol (CH3CH2OH): at room temperature it is a colourless liquid characterized by a typical smell. It is usually volatile and highly flammable.
Methane (CH4): methane is a simple hydrocarbon and in nature it is a gas. It is the most important component of natural gas and it is an excellent fuel.
Toxic gases in general: depending on the type of production of the considered system.

EXPECTED RISKS

CH3CH2OH: in ordinary production processes, a spillage may cause such a concentration of vapours that the whole environment is under a risk of explosion.
CH4: during the whole production life of a plant, both when operating or standstill, there may be gas leaks.
General toxic gases: depending on their nature, they may cause various diseases, even death, even if for short exposure times or concentrations of few ppm.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of CH3CH2OH

SE138PX - TS292PX - TS293PX

Detection of CH4

SE137KM - SE138KM - SE138PM
TS292KM - TS293KM - TS292PM - TS293PM

Detection of general toxic gases

 TS220EX

Fertilizers

Besides being substances enriched with Nitrogen, Phosphate and Potassium, the basic material used comes from animal faeces. In their processing, the most hazardous gas is ammonia which develops in big quantities during the first period of seasoning, which often takes place in closed rooms. Like in other places where a decomposition process occurs, the second risk involved here is due to hydrogen sulphide.

GASES INVOLVED

Ammonia (NH3): it is a basic substance of animal faeces and basic ingredient to produce most of fertilizers marketed nowadays.
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S): after ammonia, it is the second gas present in this substance. It is general present as sub-product in every decomposition process of organic materials.

EXPECTED RISKS

NH3: colourless, with an irritating, sharp smell, inflammable, toxic. Ammonia irritates the mucosa of the conjunctiva, nostrils and pharynx through a scalding action. Moreover, ammonia has a general scalding action.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of NH3

TS220EAH- TS293EAH

Detection of H2S

TS220EH

Galvanic plants

Galvanic processes include a so-called “pickling” step where pieces under treatment are polished: this processing makes use of acids. Another process where hazardous substances are used is the degreasing one, where not only pieces under treatment but also production equipment are degreased: trichloroethylene is basically used here.

GASES INVOLVED

Cyanhydric acid (HCN) substance useful in pickling
Hydrochloric acid (HCL) substance useful in pickling
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) substance useful in pickling
Nitric acid (HNO3) substance useful in pickling
Trichloroethylene (C2HCl3) substance useful in degreasing both pieces under treatment and production equipment

EXPECTED RISKS

HCN: at room temperature it is a colourless, volatile liquid whose vapours have a typical smell of bitter almonds. It is an extremely toxic compound: 300 ppm vapours of cyanhydric acid.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of HCN

TS220EX - TS293P

Detection of HCL

TS220EX - TS293P

Detection of H2SO4

TS220EX - TS293P

Detection of HNO3

TS220EX - TS293P

Detection of C2HCl3

TS220EX - TS293P

Gas pipelines

An obvious application is detection of flammable gases. Danger is there where leaks from the main net or joints require operators to enter narrow rooms for maintenance works. Gas pipelines may leak in areas where operators must enter for maintenance purposes, such as welding, so LEL is to be monitored before any operation.

GASES INVOLVED

Methane (CH4): dangerous methane concentrations which may create need to be monitored in every point of the pipeline where methane flows, not only in closed rooms, depending on the quantity of likely leakage.

EXPECTED RISKS

CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of CH4

SE138PM - TS292PM -TS293PM

Hangars

The big amount of fuel contained in every aircraft make a closed room like and hangar a dangerous place in case of leakage from aircraft tanks.

GASES INVOLVED

Kereosene: intermediate hydrocarbon fraction ranging between petrol and Diesel oil, got by distillation of crude oil at 150°C to 250°C.

EXPECTED RISKS

Kereosene: its ignition is very difficult because it requires high temperature and high pressure. However, it needs to be monitored for handled quantities and potential combustion in case of fire.

PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of Kerosene

TS293PX-H

Refrigerating plants

In plants where foodstuff are produced and stocked, where primary or finished products need to be preserved at a controlled temperature, the most common cooling liquid is ammonia. It is big plants where other fluids would not enable to use such high power.

GASES INVOLVED

Ammonia (NH3): contained in cooling systems, potentially it might come out from every mechanical joint along the circuit; the area of evaporators, which are contained in every cell, and he technical room of compressors are particularly critical, as the big amount of liquid might create flammable and toxic mixtures.

EXPECTED RISKS

impiantifrigoriferi2

NH3: colourless, with an irritating, sharp smell, inflammable, toxic. Ammonia irritates the mucosa of the conjunctiva, nostrils and pharynx through a scalding action. Moreover, ammonia has a general scalding action.

PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of NH3

TS220EAH
TS293EAH
TS292P
TS293P

Oil refining systems

Crude oil, during the extraction phase, is always rich in light hydrocarbons and often in sulphured hydrogen. Methane does not get wasted, but is collected in pipes to be depurated and distributed.

These applications are usually carried out in the sea and on earth installations. Platforms, perforation systems, oil pipelines terminals, refineries, oil pipelines and transport both during exploration and production, stock tanks, silos, tunnels, and tanks are all at high risk of explosion, H2S and lack of oxygen. Leaks close to valves, flanges, welding works, tanks cleaning and repair process, can be dangerous. Rust on big steel structures indicates a reduction of oxygen, if in limited spaces without aeration possibilities.

GASES INVOLVED

Flammable gases: naturally there are gases or vapours deriving from the regular activity of the system. Their presence due to any type of breakdown or accidental leak puts this place among the most dangerous.
Sulphured hydrogen (H2S): it is present in great quantity since it is a product of the decomposition of crude oil.
Lack of oxygen (O2): it can be caused in closed places by the presence of other gases or by the reduced or worsened aeration conditions.

EXPECTED RISKS

Inflammable gases: in smaller concentration even than LEL with regard to the volume they explode in presence of a minimum flash source resulting in often serious consequences for people and things.
H2S: colourless gas stands out for its characteristic smell of rotten eggs. A low-concentration exposure causes eye and throat irritation, cough, acceleration of breathing and fluid formation in the respiratory ways. High concentrations kill the olfactory nerve so making impossible to smell its disgusting odour, and may cause unconsciousness in few minutes.
O2: both excess and lack of oxygen may cause important diseases, sometimes death.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of inflammable gases

TS292P
TS293P

Detection of H2S

TS220EH

Detection of O2

SE137EO
TS210EO
TS220EO
TS293EO

Chemical labs

In a chemical lab explosive organic diluents are usually used and stored. The use of these substances makes the environment exposed to the risk of explosion or fire. In general these flammable gases are used to catalyze chemical reactions. In other departments one can get in contact with other toxic substances depending on the specific production of the factory. Inert gases that can provoke asphyxia are commonly used.

GASES INVOLVED

Acetylene (C2H2): it is used to bank up the fire necessary to a chemical reaction.
LPG (C3H8): it is used to bank up the fire necessary to a chemical reaction.
Hydrogen (H2): it is a sub product of many processes. It is highly flammable if used as a component of more complex substances.
Methane (CH4): it is used to bank up the fire necessary to a chemical reaction.
Methanol (methyl alcohol) (CH3OH): used in many analysis processes, it is often the necessary diluent of chemical solutions.
Oxygen (O2): due to the presence of inert gases like argon or nitrogen, if there is a gas leak, the atmosphere can become short in oxygen.
Toxic gases in general: depending on the need, there are a lot of toxic or gaseous substances or vapours in these spaces.

EXPECTED RISKS

C2H2: at ordinary temperature and pressure it is a colourless, extremely flammable gas. It bursts very easily, therefore it I often diluted in acetone. Since it bursts and burns very easily, and its explosion releases a great amount of energy, acetylene needs to be handled with the utmost care.
C3H8: used as a fuel, LPG is a mixture of propane and butane, which is often odorized by ethantiol to make its detection easier in case of leaks. It can easily form an atmosphere with high risk of explosion.
H2: at elementary state, atmospheric pressure and room temperature it is a colourless, odourless, highly flammable gas. Hydrogen is the lightest, most abundant element in the whole universe.
CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.

 PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of C2H2

SE138PE
TS292PE - TS293PE

Detection of C3H8

SE137KG - SE138KG -SE138PG
TS292KG - TS293KG -TS292PG - TS293PG

Detection of H2

TS292PI
TS293PI

Detection of CH4

SE137KM - SE138KM - SE138PM
TS292KM -TS293KM - TS292PM - TS293PM

 Detection of CH3OH

TS292PX-S
TS293PX-S
 Detection of O2

TS210EO -TS220EO

Detection of general toxic gases

TS220EX

Metallurgy and Iron metallurgy

The heated chemical reaction between pyrite and coal in order to produce steel engenders many risks gas wise. In the blast furnaces coke is used as fuel and releases a highly toxic gas: cokery gas. This gas contains monoxide of carbon, sulphured hydrogen, methane, SOX, and NOX.

GASES INVOLVED

Lack of oxygen (O2): deficiency of oxygen is possible in all the closed spaces, in presence of other gases, or if the aeration conditions are reduced because of environmental circumstances.
Methane (CH4): also methane might need to be supervised. In some cases methane leaks in non-explosion-proof areas with the consequent risk of explosion.
Carbon monoxide (CO): this gas is often used in boilers to generate energy, as fuel in the blast furnaces, or reintroduced in the burning process. Leaks in the pipes or in the furnaces are quite common: the gas does not always spread in the atmosphere because usually the base of the furnace is a close cabin and the accumulation is very probable.

EXPECTED RISKS

O2: both excess and lack of oxygen may cause important diseases, sometimes death.
CH4: methane is a simple hydrocarbon and is in nature in form of gas. Methane is the main component of natural gas and is an excellent fuel, able to form easily in atmosphere resulting in a high risk of explosion.
CO: carbon dioxide is a compressed colourless, odourless, tasteless and poisonous gas. Even short exposures to carbon dioxide may reduce oxygen concentration in brain so the victim falls unconscious and dies.

 PRODOTTI DA USARE  
Rilevazione O2

SE137EO
TS210EO - TS220EO - TS293EO

Rilevazione CH4

SE138PM - TS292PM - TS293PM

Rilevazione CO

TS220PM - TS293PM

Hospitals

The most used gases in therapies and surgery are oxygen and nitrogen protoxide. The first one can be excessively present, either because of a hyperbaric chamber, or because of a leak from the normal distribution system. The second one is a common anaesthetic, which obligatorily need to be supervised in the operating room.

GASES INVOLVED

Oxygen (O2): leaks might occur because of a mechanic interruption of the pipes and of the distributors.
Nitrogen protoxide (N2O): it is only used as anaesthetic in the operating room. A leak of this gas during an operation can seriously compromise all the presents and the result of the operation itself.

EXPECTED RISKS

O2: both excess and lack of oxygen may cause important diseases, sometimes death.
N2O: at ordinary temperature and pressure it is a colourless, non flammable gas with a slightly sweet odour. It is widely used in medical applications as analgesic and anaesthetic. It is also known as laughing gas for its euphoric effects.

PRODUCTS TO USE  
Detection of O2

SE137EO
TS210EO - TS220EO - TS293EO

Detection of N2O

WR000

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